TOENAILS are made of a protein called keratin which lays over the last bone (phalanx) of the end of the toe.  The nail plate that we clip overlays a nail bed.  Toenails can take on average 12-18 months to grow out.  As they grow, nails should remain intact and flat against this underlying bed; however, when it does not it can become deformed (onychodystrophy), lifted (onycholysis), ingrown (onychocryptosis), thickened (onychochauxis), or infected with fungus (onychomycosis).